Bariatric surgery also functions as a metabolic procedure and helps in improvement and/or remission of diabetes and other metabolic diseases in the long term. Bariatric surgery procedures reduce the caloric intake and also promote rapid transit of food through the gastro intestinal tract. This leads to increased production of hormones which stimulate insulin production from the pancreas. Also, weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and increases the action of insulin within the body tissues. Both these actions combine to reduce blood glucose levels and help in the control of diabetes.
Bariatric surgery can also prevent/delay the new onset of diabetes in high risk individuals and is also protective for hyperlipidemia and cardiac disease.
Different bariatric procedures vary in their metabolic efficacy but in general bypass procedures have higher metabolic potential compared to purely restrictive procedures.